Description[ edit ] Constraints on writing are common and can serve a variety of purposes. For example, a text may place restrictions on its vocabularye. Basic Englishcopula-free textdefining vocabulary for dictionaries, and other limited vocabularies for teaching English as a second language or to children. In poetry, formal constraints abound in both mainstream and experimental work.
History of the Greek alphabet Greek alphabet on an ancient black figure vessel.
There is a digamma but no ksi or omega. Etruscan writing, the beginning of the writing with the Latin alphabet. By at least writing a personal letter in italian 8th century BCE the Greeks borrowed the Phoenician alphabet and adapted it to their own language,  creating in the process the first "true" alphabet, in which vowels were accorded equal status with consonants.
According to Greek legends transmitted by Herodotusthe alphabet was brought from Phoenicia to Greece by Cadmos. The letters of the Greek alphabet are the same as those of the Phoenician alphabet, and both alphabets are arranged in the same order.
All of the names of the letters of the Phoenician alphabet started with consonants, and these consonants were what the letters represented, something called the acrophonic principle.
However, several Phoenician consonants were absent in Greek, and thus several letter names came to be pronounced with initial vowels.
Since the start of the name of a letter was expected to be the sound of the letter the acrophonic principlein Greek these letters came to be used for vowels.
As this fortunate development only provided for five or six depending on dialect of the twelve Greek vowels, the Greeks eventually created digraphs and other modifications, such as ei, ou, and o which became omegaor in some cases simply ignored the deficiency, as in long a, i, u.
After first writing right to left, the Greeks eventually chose to write from left to right, unlike the Phoenicians who wrote from right to left. Many Greek letters are similar to Phoenician, except the letter direction is reversed or changed, which can be the result of historical changes from right-to-left writing to boustrophedon to left-to-right writing.
Descendants World distribution of the Cyrillic alphabet. The dark green areas shows the countries where this alphabet is the sole main script. The light green shows the countries where the alphabet co-exists with other scripts. Greek is in turn the source of all the modern scripts of Europe. For example, the Manchu alphabetdescended from the abjads of West Asia, was also influenced by Korean hangul [ citation needed ], which was either independent the traditional view or derived from the abugidas of South Asia.
Georgian apparently derives from the Aramaic family, but was strongly influenced in its conception by Greek. A modified version of the Greek alphabet, using an additional half dozen demotic hieroglyphs, was used to write Coptic Egyptian.
Then there is Cree syllabics an abugidawhich is a fusion of Devanagari and Pitman shorthand developed by the missionary James Evans. History of the Latin alphabet World distribution of the Latin alphabet. The dark green areas show the countries where this alphabet is the sole main script.
A tribe known as the Latinswho became the Romans, also lived in the Italian peninsula like the Western Greeks. From the Etruscansa tribe living in the first millennium BCE in central Italyand the Western Greeks, the Latins adopted writing in about the seventh century.
In adopting writing from these two groups, the Latins dropped four characters from the Western Greek alphabet. They also adapted the Etruscan letter Fpronounced 'w,' giving it the 'f' sound, and the Etruscan S, which had three zigzag lines, was curved to make the modern S.
These changes produced the modern alphabet without the letters GJUWYand Zas well as some other differences. Over the few centuries after Alexander the Great conquered the Eastern Mediterranean and other areas in the third century BCE, the Romans began to borrow Greek words, so they had to adapt their alphabet again in order to write these words.
From the Eastern Greek alphabet, they borrowed Y and Zwhich were added to the end of the alphabet because the only time they were used was to write Greek words. The Anglo-Saxons began using Roman letters to write Old English as they converted to Christianity, following Augustine of Canterbury 's mission to Britain in the sixth century.
Because the Runic wen, which was first used to represent the sound 'w' and looked like a p that is narrow and triangular, was easy to confuse with an actual p, the 'w' sound began to be written using a double u. Because the u at the time looked like a v, the double u looked like two v's, W was placed in the alphabet by V.Jul 10, · GCSE Language exam revision: How to write the perfect letter How To Write A Cover Letter That Recruiters Will Love - Duration: How to Improve Writing Skills.
Writing a formal letter is never an easy task unless you’re a trained professional, and it’s even more difficult of course if you have to do it in Italian.
In a formal letter it’s important to use the correct opening and closing formulas, and to use the appropriate formal language. Italian (italiano) Italian is a Romance language spoken by about 60 million people in Italy, Switzerland, San Marino, Vatican City, Malta and Eritrea.
There are also Italian speakers in Chile, Argentina, Brazil, Australia, Canada, the USA and the UK. Whether you're writing a letter to a Spanish-speaking friend or preparing a formal business letter, the greetings and salutations in this lesson can help give your .
Mar 04, · Ending a letter or an e-mail in Italian. Discussion in 'Italian-English' started by mmpnyc, Dec 29, What are the most popular phrases Italians use to end a letter or an e-mail to a friend in a playful or friendly-joking way?
so I figured they must write 'ciao' when writing an email in Italian. Aug 19, · How to Address a Letter to an Embassy. In this Article: Article Summary Letter Help Formatting Your Letter Writing Your Letter Sending Your Letter Community Q&A An embassy is the official office of one country's ambassador in another country.
The ambassador is the official representative of their country%(88).