The Austrian royal councilor Sigismund von Herberstein described in his report Rerum Moscoviticarum Commentarii Notes on Muscovite Affairs his observations during his travels in Moscow in and
The Austrian royal councilor Sigismund von Herberstein described in his report Rerum Moscoviticarum Stalin declassified Notes on Muscovite Affairs his observations during his travels in Moscow in and He noted that homosexuality was prevelant among all social classes.
Ivan the Terrible was accused of being gay in an attempt to discredit him. When Tsar False Dmitry I was overthrown, his broken body was dragged through the streets by his genitals alongside his reputed male lover.
The prohibition on sodomy was part of a larger reform movement designed to modernize Russia and efforts to extend a similar ban to the civilian population were rejected until While this could have created a ban on all forms of private adult voluntary homosexual behavior, the courts tended to limit its interpretation to anal sex between men, thus making private acts of oral sex between consenting men legal.
The law did not explicitly address female homosexuality or cross-dressing, although both behaviors were considered to be equally immoral and may have been punished under other laws similar to how the Church would punish girls for being "tomboys" as lesbians were previously punished by law in the 17th century and prior.
It is unknown how many Russians were sentenced under this law, although there were a number of openly gay and bisexual Russians during Stalin declassified era and homoerotic rites were popular among some religious dissidents in the far north of Russia.
Author and critic Konstantin Leontiev was bisexual and one of the most famous couples in the late 19th century Russian literary world were the lesbians Anna Yevreinova a lawyer and Maria Feodorova an author. While there was a degree of government tolerance extended to certain gay or bisexual artists and intellectuals, especially if they were on friendly terms with the Imperial family, the pervasive public opinion, greatly influenced by the Eastern Orthodox Churchwas that homosexuality was a sign of corruption, decadence and immorality.
While other nations, most notable Germany, had an active gay rights movement during this era, the most visible example of Russian homosexuality aside from literature was prostitution.
Russian urbanization had helped to ensure that Saint Petersburg and Moscow both had gay brothels, along with many public places where men would buy and sell sexual services for or from other men. His homosexual relationships were widely famous in Moscow.
Magnus Hirschfeld in Berlin. In addition to the legal research, the paper argued that the anti-gay criminal law should be repealed, making him the first Russian politician to public express support for gay rights.
The initial Russian Soviet criminal code contained no criminalisation of homosexuality as the subject was omitted. Homosexuality or sodomy remained a crime in Azerbaijan officially criminalised in as well as in the Transcaucasian and Central Asian Soviet Republics throughout the s.
Official Soviet policy in both the RSFSR and the wider USSR in the s on homosexuality fluctuated between toleration and support, attempts at legal equality and social rights for homosexual people, to open examples of state hostility against homosexuals and state attempts to classify homosexuality as "a mental disorder to be cured".
In the early s, Commissar of Health Nikolai Semashko for example was sympathetic  to homosexual emancipation "as part of the [sexual] revolution" and attempted such reforms for homosexual rights in the area of civil and medical areas. In the early s, the Soviet government and scientific community took a great deal of interest in sexual research, sexual emancipation and homosexual emancipation.
In Januarythe Soviet Union sent delegates from the Commissariat of Health led by Commissar of Health Semashko  to the German Institute for Sexual Research as well as to some international conferences on human sexuality between andwhere they expressed support for the legalisation of adult, private and consensual homosexual relations and the improvement of homosexual rights in all nations.
Grigorii Batkis, director of the Institute for Social Hygiene in Moscow, published a report, The Sexual Revolution in Russia, which stated that homosexuality was "perfectly natural" and should be legally and socially respected. Batkis prior to Along with increased repression of political dissidents and non-Russian nationalities[ citation needed ] under Stalin, LGBT themes and issues faced increasing official government censorship and a uniformly harsher policy across the entire Soviet Union.
Homosexuality was officially labelled a disease and a mental disorder in the late s specifically over a period from Batkis and other sexual researchers repudiated in their own earlier scientific reports of homosexuality as a natural human sexuality.
The world of a female or male homosexual is perverted, it is alien to the normal sexual attraction that exists in a normal person".
Soviet legislation does not recognise so-called crimes against morality. Our laws proceed from the principle of protection of society and therefore countenance punishment only in those instances when juveniles and minors are the objects of homosexual interest —Sereisky, Great Soviet Encyclopedia,p.
On 7 MarchArticle was added to the criminal code for the entire Soviet Union that expressly prohibited only male homosexuality, with up to five years of hard labour in prison. There were no criminal statutes regarding lesbianism.
During the Soviet regime, Western observers believed that between and 1, men were imprisoned each year under Article Beyond expressed fears of a vast "counterrevolutionary" or fascist homosexual conspiracy, there were several high-profile arrests of Russian men accused of being pederasts.
Since no records of men having sex with boys at that time are available, it is possible this term was used broadly and crudely to label homosexuality".
Inthe British communist Harry Whyte wrote a long letter to Stalin condemning the law and its prejudicial motivations. He laid out a Marxist position against the oppression of homosexuals as a social minority and compared homophobia to racism, xenophobia and sexism.
A few years later inJustice Commissar Nikolai Krylenko publicly stated that the anti-gay criminal law was correctly aimed at the decadent and effete old ruling classes, thus further linking homosexuality to a right-wing conspiracy, i.Welcome to the homepage of the Stalin Society of North America (SSNA).
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We are glad to offer you a very unique underground facility. The only one declassified military object in Russia, which is located at a depth of 65 meters under the ground in the center of Moscow, as an anti-nuclear bunker.
Welcome to the homepage of the Stalin Society of North America (SSNA). The SSNA is the result of many months of hard work and many years of hopeful emulation. Declassified photos show the US's final preparations for the nuclear attacks on Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
WND EXCLUSIVE Shocking evidence Hitler escaped Germany Newly declassified FBI, U.S. intel files raise startling questions Published: 01/05/ at PM. The Stalin Digital Archive The SDA is a result of collaboration between the Russian State Archive of Social and Political History (RGASPI) and Yale University Press (YUP) to create an electronic database of finding aids, to digitize documents and images, and to publish in different forms and media materials from the recently declassified Stalin archive in the holdings of RGASPI.