Negative assertions[ edit ] A rhetorical question may be intended as a challenge.
This approach, although appropriate for an interdisciplinary field like digital rhetoric, presupposes an established community of researchers and practitioners: Digital rhetoric, in contrast, has not yet become established as a field. An additional consideration is that digital rhetoric draws its theory and methods first and foremost from the tradition of rhetoric itself—and this poses a dilemma because rhetoric is both an analytic method and a heuristic for production, and, critically for our purposes, can be structured as a kind of meta-discipline.
Wherever there is persuasion, there is rhetoric. But in the meaning of food there is much rhetoric, the meaning being persuasive enough for the idea of food to be used, like the ideas of religion, as a rhetorical device for statesmen.
However, this approach is complicated by the question of what constitutes a digital text, and how one defines rhetoric. In the second part, I return to the question of location as I examine the relationship between my construction of digital rhetoric and related fields such as digital literacy and new media and other emerging fields such as critical code studies and digital humanities.
Rhetoric If you are reading a book on digital rhetoric, it is likely that you already have some sense of what rhetoric is and that it has established theories, methods, and practices—along with an extensive number of potential definitions see Kinney,for pages of definitions, arranged chronologically from Sappho, circa BCE, to John Ramage, While it is well beyond the scope of this project to establish a definitive explanation of and definition of rhetoric, it is important to explain the tradition that I draw on and which informs the definition I will advance later in this chapter and that serves as the starting point for the next chapter, on theories of digital rhetoric.
I will provide more detail about classical and contemporary approaches to rhetorical theory in the next chapter, but the following brief historical overview should provide sufficient context for establishing the framework within which our definition of digital rhetoric will take shape.
Aristotle goes on to describe how individuals might employ a theoretical framework to discover arguments that might be effective in public deliberation and judgment.
The practice of rhetoric was originally concerned with the methods one could use to construct a successful persuasive oration; these methods were simplified and codified by Aristotle in the late fourth century BCE.
Classical rhetoric was concerned with only three main kinds of speech and by speech I mean oration, as these methods were developed preliteracy: In constructing a successful speech, the orator could use three modes of expression: Aristotle divides the process of developing a speech into five stages the canon of classical rhetoric: Roman rhetoricians notably Cicero and Quintilian primarily focused on the political uses of rhetoric drawing on their Greek predecessors, including Gorgias, Plato, Isocrates, and Aristotle.
Medieval and Renaissance Rhetoric The rise of Christianity in the medieval period led to the devaluation of rhetoric it was seen as pagan and antithetical to the church until Augustine recognized that the persuasive modes of rhetoric could be very useful for the church; however, the focus of rhetoric during this period was primarily in the development of rules for preaching and legal letter writing all in the service of the church.
The study of style as the most important rhetorical element gained in popularity, particularly in terms of composing verse. Rhetoric enjoyed a resurgence of sorts during the Renaissance, although the focus was primarily on style, particularly in terms of defining stylistic elements a move that was in concert with a general interest in taxonomy in a variety of disciplines.
One innovation, however, was the application of rhetoric to private discourse whereas classical rhetoric concerned itself only with public discourse.
In the seventeenth century, two opposing camps of rhetoricians emerged—the Ramists after Peter Ramus claimed invention and arrangement for the field of dialectic and limited rhetoric to style, memory, and delivery, while the Ciceronians argued for a classical approach to rhetoric that included the five elements of the canon.
Recovering Rhetoric during the Enlightenment The focus on style that began in the medieval period and continued unabated through the Renaissance was a sore point for Enlightenment rhetoricians, who worked toward a reformed notion of rhetoric after Locke attacked stylistic ornamentation as an impediment to communication.
The call for reform was threefold: Richardsfor instance, argued that meaning is a function of context, and he defines rhetoric broadly as the study of communication and understanding.
Kenneth Burke takes a similarly broad view and considers rhetoric as the study of language as human action that has intentions motivations and effects. Burke also considers the ideological function of discourse connecting people as communities with commonly held beliefs as an interest of rhetoric.
Chaim Perelman argues that rhetoric is useful for undermining any claim to any form of knowledge that is absolute and therefore beyond argument ; instead knowledge arises through argument persuasive rhetoric within communities that share assumptions and beliefs.
Perelman situates the realm of rhetoric as covering the ground between any argument that is not a self-evident truth and arguments that draw persuasive power from coercion or physical force. The power of rhetoric, as I see it, is that it can be employed as both analytic method and guide for production of persuasive discourse—and it is both of these capacities that inform my understanding of digital rhetoric.
I am drawn to this definition because it does not situate rhetorical power within a specific medium of communication e.
While many rhetorical theorists focus primarily on the analytic capacity of rhetoric, it is the value for production that I see as a key resource for the formulation of digital rhetoric.
In a more recent work, Davis and Shadle consider the value of rhetoric and pose another fairly expansive definition as applied to contemporary writing practices: Rhetoric is a syncretic and generative practice that creates new knowledge by posing questions differently and uncovering connections that have gone unseen.
Its creativity does not exclude or bracket history but often comes from recasting traditional forms and commonplaces in new contexts and questions. I would argue that we need to articulate a specific formulation for digital rhetoric for three reasons:Losh’s reading of Lanham also contextualizes it as a response to current debates in literary studies about the “death of print”: In formulating a disciplinary realm for digital rhetoric, Lanham appeases the traditionalists by attempting to integrate new media studies into a longer rhetorical history.
Rhetorical Reading Response: “Lack of Electronic Etiquette Has Painful Consequences” “Lack of Electronic Etiquette Has Painful Consequences” (), an essay written by Michelle Singletary, argues that there is a time and place to be on the phone and people should have some consideration for others around them.
Rhetorical Reading Response: Lack of Electronic Etiquette Gen Week Seven Day Four – Reading and Comprehension Checkpoint Graded Response Critique of a Marriage Proposal. Rhetorical Reading Response - Essay Example Purpose is to inform people of the consequences of not having phone etiquette in order to show that even though you may think it is no big deal, other people may be deeply bothered by it.
Rhetorical Reading Response: “Lack of Electronic Etiquette Has Painful Consequences” “Lack of Electronic Etiquette Has Painful Consequences” (), an essay written by Michelle Singletary, argues that there is a time and place to be on the phone and people . Rhetorical Reading Response: Lack of Electronic Etiquette and Its Consequences BY 26 Anglia Hosannas DRP.
Fletcher English am 13/17/13 Rhetorical Reading Response: “Lack of Electronic Etiquette Has Painful Consequences” “Lack of Electronic Etiquette Has Painful Consequences” (), an essay written by Michelle Singletree, .