ICU provides the ResourceBundle services for this purpose.
Unfortunately, it is easy to overlook the needs of people from cultures different to your own, or who use different languages or writing systems. If you do, you will build specifications and content that present barriers to the use of your technology or content for many people around the world.
Learn more below about: If you internationalize, you design or develop your content, application, specification, and so on, in a way that ensures it will work well for, or can be easily adapted for, users from any culture, region, or language.
The word 'Internationalization' is often abbreviated to 'i18n'. This is widely used abbreviation, derived from the fact that there are 18 letters between the 'i' and the 'n'.
Examples One fundamental aspect of internationalization is to ensure that the technology supports text in any writing system of the world. This is why W3C technologies are built on the universal character set, Unicode. It may be necessary to also support other legacy character sets and encodings.
There are other factors to consider, however, when using characters. For example, Unicode based encodings allow the exact same text to be stored using slightly different combinations of characters.
For efficiency and accuracy in comparing, sorting and parsing text, the different sequences need to be recognised as 'canonically equivalent'.
You need to consider how to manage this when developing applications or specifications that perform or rely on such tasks. Sometimes different writing systems require special support.
Text alignment and justification methods are also different for such scripts, and different again for scripts like Thai and Tibetan. Other local typographic conventions often exist for such things as emphasis, annotations, list numbering, and the like.
These typographic approaches need to be supported in style sheets.
Arabic, Hebrew, Persian, Urdu and similar languages mix right-to-left and left-to-right text on the same line, and it is important to be able to control the direction of the surrounding context for that to work properly.
This means that schema and format developers need to provide ways for authors to control direction in their content. Schemas, markup languages and formats should also support a number of other constructs needed for efficient handling of content during translation and localisation.
If you are dealing with HTML forms or designing ontologies relating to people's names and addresses, you will need to consider how to enable the many different approaches to formatting data that are possible around the world.
You may also need to support alternative calendars, time zones and daylight savings, names and addresses in both native plus transliterated forms, etc.
Content developers and content management systems must also be prepared to deal with linguistic and cultural issues. For example, a sentence that is constructed by combining several phrases together in one language may be impossible to translate sensibly in a language with a different sentence structure.
For example, in the Japanese translation of "Page 1 of 34" all elements in the phrase would be in reverse order. Your application must not restrict the order in which these elements can be combined. Specifications for technologies such as widgets and voice browsers should also avoid locking developers into an English-biased syntax for such things as composing messages or firing events associated with text.
Cultural problems also need to be considered. Symbolism can be culture-specific. The check mark means correct or OK in many countries. In some countries, however, such as Japan, it can be used to mean that something is incorrect.
Japanese localizers may need to convert check marks to circles their symbol for 'correct' as part of the localization process.a. managing people you can't see and redefining the role of management itself b.
managing conflict and working in isolation c. supporting managers with appropriate IHRM strategies and rewarding performance. communication; and termination of employment.
In addition, there is a “Good People Management Practices Self-Assessment Form” at Appendix II of this guide for management of individual establishments to assess their own progress in the adoption of good people management practices.
3. Boxall, P. () defined International Human Resource Management (IHRM) as ‘concerned with the human resource problems of multinational firms in foreign subsidiaries (such as expatriate management) or more broadly, with the unfolding HRM issues that are associated with the various stages of the internationalisation process.
The chain of events that leads to strong and sustained business results starts with great managers who defy common management practice at virtually every turn, says Curt Coffman, global practice.
The book examines when, how, and why internationalisation affects decisions about national economic institutions. It confronts questions at the heart of debates in political economy and comparative politics. Jun 26, · Human resources functions are significantly different from HR practices.
Functions are comprised of transactional activities that can be handled in-house or easily outsourced.