In addition to individual differences in development, developmental psychologists generally agree that development occurs in an orderly way and in different areas simultaneously. Those psychologists who support the continuous view of development suggest that development involves gradual and ongoing changes throughout the life span, with behaviour in the earlier stages of development providing the basis of skills and abilities required for the next stages. Not all psychologists, however, agree that development is a continuous process.
Theories that explain some specific area of development. It includes both the genetic origins of behavior and the direct influence of the environment on the expression of these genes. Latency - Really not a stage but an interlude.
Trust versus Mistrust infant - Hope is the virtue that develops upon successful resolution of this stage. Initiative versus Guilt preschooler - Purpose, Courage 4. Industry versus Inferiority school age - Competence 5.
Identity versus Role Confusion adolescence, 20 - Fidelity, Loyalty 6. Intimacy versus Isolation early adulthood, 20 - 40 - Love 7. Generativity versus Stagnation middle adulthood, 40 - 65 - Care 8.
Accommodation refers to the process of interpreting new experiences by modifying existing schemes. Behavior theorists define learning as nothing more than the acquisition of new behavior.
Key Terms stimulus response conditioning reinforcement modeling Learning occurs through; Classical conditioning Pavlov - Though association a neutral stimulus becomes a conditioned stimulus. Operant conditioning Skinner - Through reinforcement weak or rare responses become strong, frequent responses.
Social learning Bandura A refinement of behaviorism - Through modeling, observed behaviors become copied behaviors.
Guided Participation Vygotsky A learning process in which an individual learns through social interaction with a "tutor" a parent, a teacher, a more skilled person who offers assistance, structures opportunities, models strategies, and provides explicit instruction as needed.
Guided Participation restated Mentors guide learners through the zone of of proximal development. Both learner and society develop as a result of this collaboration.
Societies and cultures change when individuals choose which knowledge to past on. It is a sociocultural theory. Epigenetic Systems Theory An emergent theory that emphasizes the genetic origins of behavior but also stresses that genes, over time, are directly and systematically affected by many environmental factors.
Selective Adaptation An aspect of evolution in which, over generations, genes for the traits that are most useful will become more frequent, within individuals, making the survival of the species more likely.
An individual is an epigenetic system whose genes form the foundation of that system Goldsmith et al. The Five Theories a quick review: Psychoanalytic theory - too subjective. Learning theory - too mechanistic. Cognitive theory - undervalues genetic differences. Sociocultural theory - neglects individuals.
Epigenetic systems theory - neglects society Recommendation: What function does a good theory perform? What is the major assumption of psychoanalytic theory? What is the major focus of learning theory? According to Piaget, how do periods of disequilibrium lead to mental growth?
Describe guided participation, using an example. According to epigenetic systems theorists, how can genetic instructions change? What is the ethological view of behavior? How does it relate to epigenetic systems theory?
In your experience does the behavior of children at about age 4 or 5 appear to be more the result of nature or nurture?What are the differences between the 5 stage model of team development and the Punctuated Equilibrium Model?
5-stage model suggest it takes 5 steps to create an effective team. 1. Forming – members are acquainted and understand scope of project. Establish ground rules . Developmental stage theories are theories that divide child development into distinct stages which are characterized by qualitative differences in behaviour..
There are a number of different views about the way in which psychological and physical development proceed throughout the life span. When you compare bowlby’s four stage of grief with Worden’s four tasks of mourning their actually seems to be very little disparity between the two. Sure they description of each stage is worded slightly differently but there are no serious conflicts between the two.
Yet and still, others might only undergo two stages rather than all five, one stage, three stages, etc. It is now more readily known that these five stages of grief are the most commonly observed experienced by the grieving population.
Every team goes through the five stages of team development. First, some background on team development. The first four stages of team growth were first developed by Bruce Wayne Tuckman and published in 5 Big Differences Between Training and Facilitation. What are the essential differences between training and facilitation?
So the emphasis is on a hierarchical model where the trainer is the teacher and the learner is the student who supposedly knows less than the trainer. That might be the assumption of the student although it’s not.